Print ISSN:-2582-6301

Online ISSN:-2582-628X

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Received : 17-08-2021

Accepted : 28-09-2021

Available online : 29-10-2021

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Factors influencing sustainability of open defecation free (ODF) status in rural India: A cross sectional study

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Original Article

Author Details : R K Mishra, P S Janaki Krishna*, Maschendar Goud

Volume : 4, Issue : 3, Year : 2021

Article Page : 111-120

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Tackling a simple and sensitive concern of ‘Open Defecation (OD)’ is such a compounded and righteous challenge that enormous efforts and resources are needed to bring in the desired changes in the villages. Towards this, attaining open defecation free (ODF) status by providing toilet facilities to every household is the foremost step in rural sanitation programme under Swachh Bharat Mission – Gramin (SBM –G) being implemented by the Government of India. The present paper aims to examine the factors that have influence in attaining ODF status in rural areas. In this study, various parameters that contribute to attaining ODF status in the villages were identified and an extensive primary survey was conducted in 32,390 households across 686 rural villages in Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh, India. The empirical analysis of the data using a multinomial logistic regression model revealed that the factors such as water availability, safe excreta disposal, technology used for toilet construction and awareness on Swachh Bharat have an influence in achieving the open defecation free status in the villages to a greater extent.

Keywords: Sanitation, Open Defecation, Toilet, Technology, Water availability

How to cite : Mishra R K, Krishna P S J, Goud M, Factors influencing sustainability of open defecation free (ODF) status in rural India: A cross sectional study. J Nutr Metab Health Sci 2021;4(3):111-120

Copyright © 2021 by author(s) and J Nutr Metab Health Sci. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (

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